This is important – the development of thinking in children
The formation of elementary culture of thinking must begin with the first months of a child’s life. A grown man has known speech, conceptual thinking. The concept of — this is a compilation of experiences of human activity in the word. The richer the experience, the more meaningful concepts, the deeper the thought. We sometimes think that we think regardless of any activity, from practice, but this is false.
The most abstract thought is always associated with the human-1 cal practice through the concept, the word, generalizing a certain experience. First concepts begin to emerge in the preschool childhood. This process is being prepared in early childhood. Summarizing the experience in the word occurs not immediately, but gradually. The word constantly as more and more saturated with content.
Modern psychologists have identified three main stages in the development of the thinking child: clearly-effective, visual-figurative and conceptual thinking. Visual-active thinking is inherent mainly to the children of 1st, 2nd, 3rd year of life. However, already in the third year begins to form visual-figurative thinking, and then in older preschoolers, there are the first concepts, the thinking becomes more abstract.
Visual-active thinking is manifested in the form of the solution of different practical problems. This decision occurs as an immediate practical activity of the child. Every thought of the child, figuratively speaking, can be seen in his actions. For example, a child 2 years sees a toy, standing on a high shelf. To get the toy, he takes a chair and pulls it. An older child while solving this problem will do the same, but more skillfully. This means that the visual-active thinking with age does not disappear, but takes different forms. But the child is a preschooler can solve the problems based on their knowledge, imagining the possible consequences of their actions. So gradually the child moves to higher stages of development of their thinking. And although the development of the thinking child we identify some of the” sequentially advancing stages, the development of thinking — a single process and all its stages are logically linked. Therefore, forming the child even the 1st year of life his visual-active thinking, we thus generated speech and thinking, conceptual.
The timely development of the thinking child’s 1st year of life is meaningful, emotionally-intense communication with the surrounding older.
The development of thinking as activity occurs in the communication, the action items in the game, for didactic classes. Thinking as a practical task, always connected to a small child with finding and using tools to achieve any goal. So, for example, 5″6-month-old baby at first quite unintentionally touches handles diaper, gradually tightens it all to yourself along with the ball and takes it. Another time the child is especially drawn to his diaper to pull up lying on her toys.
6—7 months. you can tie the ribbon to the color ring or rattle, which the child cannot reach out a hand. After several attempts the child uses the ribbon, pulling with it the toy. Repeat this activity several times, changing the toy that the child was interesting. Ribbons should not be very long. For the child who had begun to stand and walk in the crib, another interesting game that promotes thinking: tie to one end of a ribbon or rubber band ball, big beanbag, rubber bird or small inflatable toy and the other end of the ribbon attach to the side of the arena. At this age children love to experiment with toys, throwing them on the floor, the child watches you can get various toys, what sound they make while etc the Toy, tied to the ribbon, the child will again push her to her bed, pulling her over the ribbon. The ribbon used by the child as a means to an end.
Since 10 months. with a child it is possible to conduct special classes. Seat the baby in a high chair and on the table before him lay the ball so that he could not get his hand. The kid pulled his hand, a questioning look on you. Tie the bead or ring the ribbon and put it again in front of the child. He immediately pull the ribbon and the ball will be in his palms. What a joy! Repeat this game several times, changing the color of the ribbons and toys tied to them. If the kid is good at solving these simple problems, give him more complex: in a plastic Cup low plant doll or a bird, through the Cup handle loop string and the ends put on the table in front of the child. To get the Cup, I have to pull both ends of the moving tape. Child aged 11 –12 months. and older can solve this problem, but if it would be difficult, show yourself, how to get a doll, and he delighted to repeat this action.
The main thing in these practical games-the tasks that the child learns to use the object (the ribbon, stick, net, shovel, hammer) as a means to achieve a certain goal. This is for a child of elementary culture of thinking. The experience of the subject, which the child first year of life accumulates, communicating with adults, gives him opportunities to solve a variety of practical games and tasks, prepares it for further mental development.
Child, able to walk, constantly needs to solve practical problems. But it is not always the solution of these tasks is done with the help of items-tools (ribbon, wand, etc.). For example, the child sees that the toy lies on the far end of the table — he’s going around the table and grabs a toy. You can complicate the problem as follows: make a kind of labyrinth of chairs. The little one must find the path to the toy.
Different behaviours that develop the child in the process of communication with adults. For example, if your child wants to take any toy, but can’t do it for any reason, he will be looking at adult show hand on the toy, making sounds with a pleading tone, as if the child is older, he says “give”, etc.
Child, the adults socialize a little, unable to properly organize their behavior, to address a request to the parents. Ability to solve practical problems in the child, as we have seen, is formed not only in the sphere of the action items, but also in communication. If at the decision of tasks of subject content as a means of achieving the goal are the subjects and ways of action with them, in communication with the means of achieving the goal are certain ways of behavior.
Modes of action with objects and methods (norms) of behavior the child learns only in the conditions of constant targeted adult conversation with him. Adult passes to her child, historically, the experience of behavior, modes of action with objects, creates the conditions for the learning experience of the child, the development of his thinking. Important role in the development of thinking is the formation of the cognitive orientation of its activities, practical skills, the accumulation of practical knowledge, acquired in the game with objects-toys.
The accumulation of experience and its generalization in the form a variety of target modes of action with objects, ways of communicating with people ensures proper development of the child’s thinking and transform it from clearly-effective early childhood visual-figurative and conceptual in preschool and school age.