The Development of thinking in early childhood
The end of the 1st year of life the child is able to perform elementary cognitive action is to use the relationship between objects to achieve a goal (e.g., to slip the pillow on which rests a toy to get it) These speculations arise only in the simplest cases, if the objects are linked (the toy lying on the pillow) is just to use a ready communication during early dicins TBA baby rely increasingly on such ready connection: draws the string toy car or a wheelchair, receives from the ribbon toy, which cannot datanalisis.
2-3-m to year of life the baby possesses different actions is not combined with the visible connection objects, ie shall relate to and tools of the action takes place under the guidance of an adult, and ω independently of any mental problems the child still does not solve, However, it is very important that she begins to focus on the relationship between objects, in particular, the relationship of the instruments with the subject, later transition it to establish such links in a new environment, with new seducing.
The transition from ready or adults demonstrated ties to their installation is particularly important stage in the development of children’s thinking began to establish new linkages occurs PU Yakh practical attempts, during which to help the child often comes to an accident for Example, 2-year-old kid sitting at a table on which is placed a attractive toy at this distance that the hand of di become impossible He reaches for her hand, but quickly convinced of the futility of efforts, Therefore, turns away from the toy and notices a stick, takes it and starts to twist in the hands of Accidentally Keene C stick touches the toy, and the child notices this kid’s Attention once again rushes to the toy he begins specifically to move it with a stick, watching the movement After several attempts installs some of the moves m out help to retrieve a toy, and does it Often, it does not change anything to the Kid becomes interesting not just to get the toy, and to trace the connection between guns (sticks) with her moving and exploring this relationship, the child specifically removes and brings a toy with a stick which generate the visual-active thinking medenceben baby.
Visual-active thinking – thinking which is carried out by external indicative actions
The child uses visual-active thinking to study a variety of relationships in the outside world its Feature is a visual representation of the task, using practical child x the solution of the I.
External indicative actions are the basis of the formation of internal (mental) In early childhood have a Cape-inflammatory actions performed mentally, without external attempts If the baby is familiar with the way to solve the ‘ knitting tasks (to get a distant object with a stick), he can guess to apply it in new situations, for example to get the ball that rolled under the sofa This conjecture is based on the attempt, he does mentally have a baby is not with real objects and images, notions about them and how to use them, His thinking is the result of internal actions with obra deputies, i.e., becomes visually-opasneishim.
Visual-figurative thinking – thinking which is based on submissions without the use of practical action
In early childhood opportunities for imaginative thinking is very limited, it is only simple tasks When solving complicated problems the kid is forced to resort to external influences
In the development of thinking of children of early age plays an important role in the formation of generalizations – mental associations of objects or actions, endowed with common essential features of the Basis for them is learning language, because the meaning of words, understanding and use of which adults teach children, al di contains a generalization for Example, the word “clock” about a little manual clock, alarm clock, large wall clocks However the generally accepted meaning of the words the child learns h e immediately She often calls the same word different things based on their similarity on a random, insignificant signs that may be constantly changing Baby cat calls the word “loc” and begins to apply it to the fur collar, fur hats (fluffy), every shiny objects (similar to the cat’s eyes), etc. Such a change do not support adults, under the influence of which he understands the connection of word with the object the name of an object becomes as if in her name: the kid calls the word “Name” only dark blue ball, balls of other colors of this title not to receive Educational ichi the child to generalize on the basis of the extension of his experience of action with toys, household items, basic tools First real generalization items (according to their importance, functions) seracult Sya in action, then fixed in slavyantsi at d, potim zakreplyaetsya at slow.
Prior to the completion of the early childhood arises iconic-the symbolic function of consciousness, the Child begins to internalize the operation of substitution, where one item can be used as a substitute for another Precondition of the emergence of the symbolic function is the acquisition of subject actions and the separation of the action from the subject If the child eats with chopsticks, it is not a food process, and therefore, it is the action that you konwersja with the subject, not in it, or without a compulsory subject, loses its meaning and becomes a symbol of reality Traditionally, the child first begins to use the substitutes of objects, to act practically and on this basis, gradually captures the relationship between the symbol and what it refers to, for Example, in the game he acts first stick as a spoon, and later begins is to provide this wand the value of the spoon spoon.
Symbolic function does not open, and absorbed by the child, it is passed to the child by adults, showing game action, teaching drawing, design, repeatedly emphasizing that the child’s actions and their results depict something the assimilation of the symbolic function occurs through the development of its own activities of the child Even in the simplest forms of symbolic function rebuilds the child’s thinking Instead will present tier of the real action with real things, he begins to use visual-figurative thinking, the images, indicating these actions and things, allocates them only important to solve the problem of the C e serves as a prerequisite for the development of abstractness, generality of thinking that occurs in preschool vicws.