Intellectual game for the development of thinking in children
Chess and other mind games is not only a sport, art and science, but also an excellent tool for the development of thinking. Even Sukhomlinsky in his work “I give my Heart to children” wrote: “the Game of chess must enter into the lives of elementary school as one of the elements of mental culture.” The impact of chess on children’s early development has been proven in numerous psychological studies. In Venezuela tested students of two schools, one of which chess was included in the school curriculum, the overall level of knowledge in all subjects pupils ‘ players was much higher. Similar experiments conducted in other countries showed the same result.
Th less popular game, but is very promising in developing the plan. In Japan, research was carried out, showing that innate ability is better revealed in children who play in th. It is recommended to start learning at the age of 4-5 years, when the thought processes are still evolving. In th is important not only analytical skills – role of intuition. Studies of stroke survivors showed that early in the game is crucial that the right hemisphere is responsible for creativity, and in the middle and the end is left responsible for logical thinking. Thus, children playing, developing both hemispheres. Not to say that in chess creativity is missing, but still this game is rather analytical plan.
Intellectual games develop memory, logical thinking, spatial imagination, develop perseverance, diligence, dedication, and the ability to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and be responsible for them, and hence independence. Not less important is the ability for a long period of time to concentrate on one activity (which for hyperactive children also performs a corrective function).
Intellectual games teach the right attitude to failures and errors – analyze the causes, draw conclusions and apply them in the following game. In addition to intelligence, develops ingenuity and creativity, this particular helps decision combinations, tasks and, of course, “music of chess” – etudes. Physical training also have to deal with – not so easy to spend several hours at the Board.
Intellectual games are taught to think systematically and strategically develop the ability to analyze, and most importantly – children learn to create an internal plan of action (CPA), or, more simply, to act in mind. This skill is key for the development of thinking in General, and with the aid of intellectual games, particularly chess, it is easiest to develop.
When is the best time to begin to engage with the child? Various schools of early development offer training with 2-3 years, but in this case, the chess misused – the same job with equal success can be performed with any other figures. Consciously, children begin to perceive chess for about 4 years, many Champions (for example, H.-R. Capablanca) started playing at this age. But the most important period in the development of thinking is the age of 7-12 years, so the lessons of chess, as a rule, start with the second class as the first year in school is a big change and stress in a child’s life.
For curricula-selected chess, because it is clearly structured system, based on which you can practice all the necessary skills. In this regard, Guo – more irrational, and in backgammon there is a random factor, which imposes some restrictions when training. In Russia there is only one educational-methodical complex (EMC) in chess, approved by the Ministry of education. It was developed by I. G. Sukhin based on the theory of P. Y. Galperin and works of L. S. Vygotsky, Jean piaget, J. A. Ponomareva on the psychology of creativity and the stages of the formation VAP.
It is important to understand that the purpose of the lessons is the sequential development of thinking, rather than learning the game itself. That is what should be focused methods of teaching. The teacher is not a coach, he has no problem – select the best and to achieve high results. Its goal is the development of all the students, so the sporting aspect of chess is eliminated immediately. I. G. Sukhin said that children love to play and WIN at chess, resentment from the lesions may completely discourage interest in the game. Therefore, the lessons are constructed so that there are no losers. This is achieved either by simultaneous solution of tasks, or a simultaneous game with the teacher, starting with a known position, or the game in pairs at the end of the lesson, so as not to have time to finish it.
The training is conducted in a playful way, children do interesting work, participating in quizzes, solve puzzles and riddles, watching chess productions-tales. Each figure is studied in great detail, and the term “Mat” is entered only at the end of the first year. The results of psychological tests of children involved in this methodology, showed the effectiveness chess lessons.
The main difficulty of implementing General chess education is the lack of teachers on the subject. Here may play an important role learning using the Internet: the main part of the lesson will be conducted by a qualified teacher, and the teacher will remain to organize the process and monitor its results. This two-tier scheme of work is used in some countries. At this stage in Russia chess classes by teachers of primary classes, the teaching materials are written in sufficient detail, so the main problem is often a psychological barrier – the fear to teach chess.
Chess education in different countries
Before all chess introduced into the school curriculum in Kalmykia. It took more than 10 years, and it is already possible to judge the results. Today, all children in Kalmykia know how to play chess. Student achievement has increased one and a half times, the Republic ranks first in Russia in the number of students that received the maximum score on the exam. Sharply decreased juvenile delinquency – children engaged in interesting work instead of vandalize. Today chess as an elective course taught in the schools of Nizhny Novgorod, Khanty-Mansiysk, Kabardino-Balkaria, the Tomsk region and Kalmykia. It is planned to introduce chess as an elective course in all regions of the Russian Federation.
In the world chess included in the curriculum of many countries: Spain, Holland, Israel, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Iceland, Sweden, Hungary, USA, Canada, Moldova and many others. In India chess are over two million students. Wide dissemination of and public support chess got in China and Singapore.
Professional sports or the harmonious development
In the classroom for the development of thinking through chess does not aim to obtain good results, and, ultimately, a really strong players school technique not educate. However, this is a good Foundation for those who decide to play chess seriously and will continue their training in the youth Academy under the guidance of an experienced coach. According to estimates I. G. Sukhina these guys – no more than 10%. But of them professionally chess will do not all. Any sport of high achievement requires high loads and a lot of dedication, but in chess it is added, and severe emotional stress. At school age, the workload could be overwhelming. Therefore, most of chess is important but not the only component of the harmonious development, one of the steps of success in life.